Jean Pierre Boyer
Jean Pierre Boyer was the son of a Frenchmen, a tailor by profession. and an African Mother, a former slave of Guinean origin. His father sent him to France and paid for his education at a military school. Boyer joined the French Republican Army and earned the rank of battalion commander. After the Suicide of Henry Christophe, Jean Pierre Boyer became the President of Haiti and reunited the country. Below is how the magistrates announced to the population of Haiti that the whole country was under the control of Jean Pierre Boyer.
Liberty- Equality- Independence Citizens, Soldiers
The magistrates and general undersigned, announce to you, with the most lively joy, that they come solemnly to declare that this day there exists in Haiti, but one government and one constitution.
Citizens, Soldiers, peace is made. war is no longer amongst us; all Haitians are united and brethren. President Boyer and his army will shortly enter this city to receive and give the embrace of peace and fraternity: Prepare yourselves to receive it with all enthusiasm which characterizes true Haitians. In consequence, we shall repeat a thousand times these cries, pledging forever, the happiness and welfare of the country.
- Long live the Republic of Haiti
- Long live the independence
- Long live liberty and equality
- Long live President Boyer.
We pledge you to repeat them a thousand times with us.
On November 30, 1821 Santo Dominngo declare its independence from Spain and became "Spanish Haiti" This relieved a weak threat to Boyer, since he was concerned about Spain's presence just over his border. However, this was an opportune time to be certain that Spain would not come back. Boyer led an invasion of "Spanish Haiti." quickly conquering and thus holding the entire island on the name of Haiti.
Boyer was anxious to remove the threat of France and opened negotiations. An agreement was reached on July 11, 1825, when with fourteen French warships off Port-au-Prince, Boyer signed an indemnity, stating that in return for 150 million francs paid within five years, France would recognize Haiti as an independent country. While this sum was later reduced to 60 million francs (1838), it was a crushing economic blow to Haiti. Boyer had to negotiate a loan from France of 30 million francs to pay the first part of the indemnity. The Haitian population meanwhile was retreating into an agricultural subsistence pattern, defying the initial plan of Boyer to enforce the semi-feudal fermage system. The corruption of Boyer’s rule and the stagnation of the economy finally led to a rebellion in 1843 that forced Boyer to flee to and then to Paris where he died in 1850.
Years in office: 1818-1843
Notes about term: Overthrown.